Gabapentin is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome. It is recommended as one of a number of first-line medications for the treatment of neuropathic pain caused by diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and central neuropathic pain.
Class of Drug
Mechanism of Action
Indications / Dosage / Route
Routes of Administration: Oral only.
Condition: Adjunct for treating partial and secondary generalized seizures that do not respond to other drugs
Dose: Adults, children >12 years: Initial: 300 mg t.i.d. Maintenance: 900-1800 mg/d, 3 divided doses. Maximum: 3600 mg/d.
Adjustment of Dosage
Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance 30-60 mL/min: 300 mg b.i.d.; creatinine clearance 15-30 mL/min: 300 mg/d; creatinine clearance 15 mL/min: 300 mg q.o.d.
Liver disease: None.
Elderly: Use with caution because of age-related decrease in renal function.
Pediatric: Safety and effectiveness have not been established in children <12 years.
Food and Drug Interactions
Food: No restrictions.
Pregnancy: Category C.
Lactation: No data available. Best to avoid.
Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to gabapentin
Warnings / Precautions
> Use with caution in patient with renal insufficiency, elderly.
> Do not withdraw gabapentin suddenly because there is a risk of precipitating seizures. Withdraw over a period of about 1 week.
Clinically Important Drug Interactions
> Drugs that decrease effect/toxicity of gabapentin: antacids.
> Drug that increases effect/toxicity of gabapentin: cimetidine.
> Common: dizziness (15%), ataxia (12%), fatigue, somnolence.
> Serious: depression, leukopenia, bronchospasm, nystagmus, diplopia, pancreatitis, thyroid abnormalities, personality changes, poor coordination.
Parameters to Monitor
> CBC with differential and platelets, serum BUN and creatinine.
> CNS side effects.
Advice to Patient
> Take first dose h.s.
> Do not take gabapentin within 2 hours of an antacid.
> Notify dentist or treating physician prior to surgery if taking this medication.
> Cany identification card at all times describing disease, treatment regimen, name, address, and telephone number of treating physician.
> Avoid alcohol.
> Avoid driving and other activities requiring mental alertness or that are potentially dangerous until response to drug is known.
Further Useful Info
> Gabapentin is used as an adjunct in the treatment of partial and secondary generalized seizures in adults.
> Off-label indications include treatment of chronic pain syndromes.